To address future environmental change and consequent social vulnerability, a better understanding of future population (FPOP) dynamics is critical. In this regard, notable progress has been made in producing FPOP projections that are consistent with the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) at low resolutions for the globe and high resolutions for specific regions. Building on existing endeavors, here we contribute a new set of 1 km SSP-consistent global population projections (FPOP in short for the dataset) under a machine learning framework. Our approach incorporates a recently available SSP-consistent global built-up land dataset under the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 6, with the aim to address the misestimation of future built-up land dynamics underlying existing datasets of future global population projections. We show that the overall accuracy of our FPOP outperforms five existing datasets at multiple scales and especially in densely-populated areas (e.g. cities and towns). Followingly, FPOP-based assessments of future global population dynamics suggest a similar trend by population density and a spatial Matthew effect of regional population centralization. Furthermore, FPOP-based estimates of global heat exposure are around 300 billion person-days in 2020 under four SSP-Representative Concentration Pathway (RCPs), which by 2100 could increase to as low as 516 billion person-days under SSP5-RCP4.5 and as high as 1626 billion person-days under SSP3-RCP8.5—with Asia and Africa contributing 64%–68% and 21%–25%, respectively. While our results shed lights on proactive policy interventions for addressing future global heat hazard, FPOP will enable future-oriented assessments of a wide range of environmental hazards, e.g. hurricanes, droughts, and flooding.
关键词: gridded global population projections, Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs), extreme heat, climate variability and global change, sustainable development